Juan Viedma Martinez Juan Viedma Martinez • 1st Dr.at Law and Economist. MBA

The first kingdom known to have existed in Ethiopia was the kingdom of D’mt, which rose to power around the 10th century B.C. Its capital was Yeha, where a Sabaean-style temple was built around 700 BC. The Sabaeans influenced the D’mt kingdom in Yemen. However, it is not known to what extent.

Ethiopia is a region that has a long history, has some of the earliest human populations, and is possibly the area where people expanded and evolved out of Africa to populate the rest of the world 1.8 years ago. The period begins with the Australopithecus, the ancient hominoids which extend to the early inhabitants of the pre-Aksumites. It is also the period with the arrival of Ge’ez and Judaism. It is believed that the Cushitic language speakers have been the original inhabitants of Ethiopia; however, they were driven out of the region in the 2nd millennium B.C. Accordingly, the Ethiopian kingdom was founded (10th cent. B.C.) by Solomon’s first son, Menelik I. However, it is documented that the first kingdom was Aksum (Axum), a kingdom that probably emerged in the 2nd century A.D. The First Ethiopian Kingdom, Aksum, was a very advanced civilization, for they were the first Africans to mint coins. Nevertheless, Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the most ancient nations in the world.

Under King Ezana, Aksum was converted (4th cent.) to Christianity by Frumentius of Tyre. This is closely tied to the Egyptian Coptic Church, which accepted the Monophysitism, a Christological position that Christ has only one place, following the Council of Chalcedon. In the 6th century, however, the Jewish influenced the Aksum, and some Ethiopians were converted to Judaism. The second Ethiopian Empire was The Zagwe; they didn’t claim the King Solom nor the Queen of Sheba. When Yekuno Amlak came to power, the Solomonic Dynasty was reinstated in the 10th century B.C. Then came the Zamana Masafent era, which was marked by continuous welfare. It was a period in which Ethiopia was divided with no effective central authority. The lords constantly fought against each other to become the guardians of the kings of Gonder. A notable figure of this period is the monastic evangelist Ewostatewos, who was an essential religious leader in the Ethiopian church. Finally, modern Ethiopia was the reunification of Ethiopia, which began with the rule of Emperor Tewodros. The following central ruler was Haile Selassie I before Derg replaced him.

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